Causes of Drug Addiction – Neurotransmitter imbalance

This is the second blog post on the topic of natural medicine and addiction.

The topic this time is neurotransmitters and addiction.  There are various environmental factors which can affection neurotransmitter function and such factors are things like poor diet, energy imbalance and toxins.  Below is a list of where the main neurotransmitters are and their function:

chart d

chart c

Used with permission from

As you can see with the diagram above.  (When you click on the pictures, they come up full size in a  separate  window.)  The Dopamine and Serotonin receptors are both synthesised  in the raphe nucleus and got their own locations in the brain, but they are the main neurotransmitters found in addiction, along with GABA or gamma – amin0butyric acid, endorphin and enkephalin.

diagram a

Taken from Ref. 2

The chart above is showing the different parts we are referring to, with the areas in the brain they are most likely to be found.  Ventral Tegemental Area (VTA),  and Substantia nigra are often noted in cocaine addiction.  The Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) is often seen in heroin addiction.  I thought I had a post on it!  It has got lost somewhere, I had a blog on addiction and the brain and it has vamooshed!

diagram b

“Modified from brain illustration:

Figure 2 from Ref.  2

The diagrams above are taken from another paper by Blum, but, Blum and other scientists studying this topic have all found that the level of dopamine found in the brain of addicts is lower than normal.  We also know about the other neurotransmitters as well, and they are in other posts on this blog.

In the last post of this series, we were talking about genetic factors and even if these factors were in play with the initial addiction onset, the ingestion of the alcohol and drugs, or the injection of drugs, the neurochemistry then starts to have an effect as the receptor pathways respond to the drugs.  If the person is a chronic alcoholic, then they should have a reduced action or a  deficiency  in action of the following neurotransmitters:  dopamine; serotonin; GABA, endorphin and finally enkephalin.

To combat these deficiencies naturally, it is common practice to have doses of  amino acids, or their precursor – which is quite a common practice, varying strength depending on each case seen.  They can be administered either by oral (pills) or by intravenous (injection) routes.  Thus correcting the deficits and t0 aid the functioning of the neurotransmitters, however, depression, anxiety, withdrawal symptoms being the main ones being corrected using the amino acid method of treatment.  The fact that the addiction can be corrected using this method shows that addiction has a neurotransmitter balance which is completely out of sync.

Further to that finding, it can often indicate that there is a amino acid  deficiency  at the heart of the addiction.  Sometimes, it can be that the amino acid measure is only obtaining  temporary  results, in this case, it would be advisable to have regular treatments over a longer term, thus indicating a major deficit in the neurotransmitter concerned, or a cocktail, if the  addiction  has been long term.

The next post in the series will be about nutrition deficiencies and addiction.


  1.  Marohn, Stephanie (2004) The Natural Medicine Guide to Addiction, PP 30 -31.
  2. Blum, Kenneth, Oscar-Berman, Marlene, Stuller, Elizabeth, Miller, David, et al. (2012) “Neurogenetics and Nutrigenomics of Neuro-Nutrient Therapy for Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS): Clinical Ramifications as a Function of Molecular Neurobiological Mechanisms.” Journal of addiction research & therapy, 3, p. 139. [online] Available from:

Two journal articles on Depression

Good afternoon

I did this week’s lectures in my depression course and I have found the Messias paper as it is as shown below:

Messias 2011

I also have found an interesting article on Ketamine and antidepressants, at the time of typing this, I haven’t had a good look at this as I am during revision for my Psychology course as I have a test on Tuesday.

Ketamine paper

I know you will find the papers interesting.

Happy reading and let me know what you think.

What’s it like to have severe psych drug withdrawal syndrome? (or CFS/ME) updated

Everything Matters: Beyond Meds

I’m sharing a link to a booklet that describes what CFS/ME is like to live with, because it is also what psychiatric drug withdrawal syndrome is like for many people…EXACTLY. My life is still like this…still very very restrictive…but it’s far better than it was…because I can get out of bed now and make it out of the house on occasion…I’ve compared ME and CFS to psych drug withdrawal many times…not that it helps most people understand the severity, but it does help some…

I hardly bother trying to explain to people anymore because they either get it or they don’t. If they get it’s not really necessary to explain much. If they don’t get it explaining what they refuse to get is a waste of valuable energy.

Following is the link to the booklet…please view it if you care to understand how sick those of us…

View original post 201 more words

Something which came to me…..

Hello there

As most people know I have a specialism for all things neuroscience and whilst I was at night school were were discussing about ECT, and a thought occurred to me.

As the workings of ECT is to give people an electric shock:

The electrical therapy could increase the acidity of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for short.

I was just wondering on the effects of HAARP:

The Chemtrails for this as the video said has Aluminium and / or Barium and now I have been hearing about Lithium (which is apparently used to lower the rates of depression is frequently found in depression.  There is a question we all have to ask ourselves, if we have these metals in our nerves and / or blood (remember the CSF is composed of blood), is it going to have an effect on how the nerves work.

I will leave you with a thought, what if this is what really is happening in ECT and with the chemtrails and no one else is talking about it?

Something to think about…..

Interesting article on Antidepressants and Depression

Hello again

Getting busy with posts today on information, I have another post from my main blog to do.

I was just reading this and thinking ooohhhh.  People who are major depressive disorder diagnosed taking antidepressants to alleviate their symptoms.  I could go on all day with how the drugs used in psychiatry are so wrong.  But to go from effectively unipolar depression to bipolar, when the moods swing from depression to mania.  I think I have a blog up about bipolar were I go through the effects of bipolar and how the symptoms of bipolar itself can vary.

I am interested in how the drugs can do this.  For the article, we have a link rather than a pdf this time and here it is, click here for the article which you can also download as a pdf from the site itself.

You can leave comments if you want to discuss this further.

Interesting paper on Doctor Shopping

Hello everyone

I have just noticed an interesting paper on Doctor Shopping which is:


doctor shopping

Above is the link to get the paper.  It is an interesting paper on a much unspoken of issue in today’s society.

Pill farms

As well as the issue with people doing doctor shopping to get various controlled medication – the schedules are different country to country as well as what they go under, so, I’ d say for the reader to check their local laws.

Pill farms may sound like a processing plant for illicit drugs, when in fact, it is when people go to a doctor who has been struck off or a foreign doctor not fully registered, (note – not all foreign doctors are like this!), to make out prescription scripts for the prescription drug (which maybe an opioid which maybe semi synthetic or fully synthetic).

There is many more ways to get hold of illicit drugs which you can pick up on prescription, but these are the ones which are interlinked.


Paper on MDD and zinc supplementation

Good afternoon

I have just recently started a course on Major Depression Disorder in the Community and I have found an interesting paper on MDD and zinc  supplementation.

The ethos of my practice into mental health is to make use of the vast natural methods to help support the body in the illness.  I am against the use the  anti psychotic  use in psychiatric treatment.

  • The “safety studies” are not that great, much of it is from the drug company’s own funds.
  • Many people nowadays lack nutrients from the food supply due to modern farming methods, so chances are the drugs are hurting NOT helping.
  • There is still a lot of depression being discovered.

So This paper is naturally something that I will find interesting.

Iranian Journal of Psychiatry

Until next time.